Curiosity is the desire to know. It reflects the curious individual's desire to obtain information that is available, yet unknown. Curiosity elicits an excitement which motivates the individual to satisfy it by obtaining the information.
The process of satisfying curiosity is pleasurable, and the pleasure derived from satisfying curiosity explains why people voluntary seek satisfaction (Loewenstein, 1994).
Curiosity is one of the factors that induce intrinsic motivation, intense concentration, and enjoyment, while interacting with the Internet (e.g., Ghani & Deshpande, 1994; Hoffman and Novak, 1997).
Curiosity attracts consumers' attention and increases purchase motivation and enjoyment while shopping (Hill et al. 2016).
Using advertisements that elicit a state of curiosity leads to better product evaluation and greater perceived novelty among Internet consumers (Menon and Soman, 2002).
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Hill, Krista M., Fombelle, Paul W. and Sirianni, Nancy J. (2016). "Shopping under the Influence of Curiosity: How Retailers Use Mystery to Drive Purchase Motivation". Journal of Business Research. 69 (3), 1028-1034.
Hoffman, Donna L. and Novak, Thomas P. (1996). "Marketing in Hypermedia Computer-Mediated Environment: Conceptual Foundations". Journal of Marketing, 60 (July). 50-68.
Loewenstein, G. (1994). "The psychology of curiosity: A review and reinterpretation". Psychological Bulletin, 116(1), 75–98.
Menon, S., & Soman, D. (2002). Managing the power of curiosity for effective web advertising strategies. Journal of Advertising, 31(3), 1–14.
Adopted from: Pelet JE, Ettis S, Cowart K. 2017. Optimal experience of flow enhanced by telepresence: Evidence from social media use. Information & Management. 54(1): 115-128.
Flow is a psychological state characterized as an intrinsically enjoyable experience. It results in intense engagement, a distorted sense of time, loss of self-consciousness, and heightened motivation. It is “a psychological state in which the person feels simultaneously cognitively efficient, motivated, and happy.” In this state, people are fully absorbed in what they are doing. Time may seem to stand still while one is engaged in a consumption event. The user is intrinsically motivated to repeat an activity continually. Flow is a continuous variable with different levels, ranging from an absence of flow to an intense state of flow.
Flow is experienced in a variety of activities such as playing sports, reading a book, or watching a movie. In activities within a computer-mediated environment, one can experience online flow. Online flow can be experienced when one is completely immersed in an online activity. Flow represents the computer user’s affective responses to computer usage, characterizing playfulness and exploration as defining characteristics of human–computer interactions. Flow has been proposed as the central process in a user’s web navigation, online gaming, software use, and e-shopping.
When tasks involve a balanced amount of challenge and skill, when we can concentrate on the task, when the task undertaken has clear goals, and when the task provides immediate feedback, flow occurs. This usually enhances our concentration on the task. When in flow, involvement in the activity is deep but effortless. Enjoyable experiences allow people to exercise a sense of control over their actions, concern for the self disappears, and the sense of the duration of time is distorted. The mixture of all these elements leads to a sense of deep enjoyment
The author lengthily speaks about the social desirability tendency of consumers according to which they purchase products that would help them gain the approval of others, however, when asked directly they would never admit that. Instead they would always refer to functional aspects of the products as their purchase motivation. The reason is that people are inclined to present themselves in a way that is consistent with social norms, and independent is a highly ranked value…
When asked directly (and not in anonymity), respondents are engaged with impression management and feel greater pressure to make their responses consistent with social expectations.
Socially desirable responding is very common:
47% of US applicants admit to exaggerating positive attributes and
62% to deemphasizing negative attributes
(König et al., 2011)
BestFit questionnaire reduces responses bias by:
Asking indirect questions with latent traits measuring - the respondent cannot know what the measured trait or behavioral characteristics is
All answers portray almost equally attractive images; therefore, the candidate finds it difficult to identify a specific socially desired answer
The questionnaire is attractively designed, and the questions are amusing; features that assist to create a relaxed and non-threatening environment, in which the candidate does not feel that s/he is being tested, and therefore is less motivated to deliberately change answers
The Oxford English Dictionary defines satisfaction as the fulfillment of one's wishes, expectations, or needs, or the pleasure derived from this.
American psychologist Abraham Maslow identified a hierarchy of five basic human needs. These are:
Physical survival needs, including food, drink, shelter, sleep, and oxygen. When these needs are not satisfied, they dominate a person’s attention. Someone who is hungry is not interested in socialising or learning.
Physical safety needs, so the person feels safe in the world and free from fear. When a person is afraid, that emotion takes over until it is alleviated.
Love and belonging needs. When physical and safety needs are met, a person experiences a need for love, affection and belonging. Human beings are sociable and want to have a place in a group. A person also wants to feel acceptance and understanding, love and affection, and intimacy. Without these, people feel lonely, sad, and joyless.
Self esteem needs. People want to feel they have value and count for something. They need self-respect and respect from others. Self esteem includes the need for achievement, independence, and freedom. Respect from others includes attention, recognition, and appreciation.
Self-fulfillment needs. When the above four needs are met, a fifth need develops. This is the desire to develop physically, socially, emotionally, and spiritually. A self-fulfilled person feels aware, complete, and joyful.
Having knowledge of oneself is a key component to satisfy the fifth need of self-fulfillment.
As of the second quarter of 2020, Facebook had 2.7 billion active users, making it the world’s largest social network. Instagram had a billion monthly active accounts and 500 million daily active accounts and Twitter had 262 million international accounts. Launched in 2004, 2010 and 2006, respectively, these social media companies have grown exponentially for one simple reason: people love to share.
When surveyed about why they used social media, people gave the following reasons:
To stay in touch with what friends are doing (42%)
To stay up to date with news and current events (41%0
To fill up spare time (39%)
To find funny or entertaining content (37%)
General networking with other people (34%)
People use social media to connect with others, to fulfil the basic human need to be part of a group, and to share information. A 2016 study indicated that having a post “liked” on social media had a similar effect on the brain as eating chocolate or winning money and that people are more likely to engage with posts that have been liked by a number of their peers.
The motivation to contribute to social media differs from individual to individual. One reason someone contributes valuable information is the expectation that he or she will receive help or information in return. This is called anticipated reciprocity. The desire for recognition and prestige within an online community is another reason for sharing. Finally, people may contribute because in doing so they have an increased sense of efficacy—that they have had an impact on the online group.